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Surface Stabilization of a Formamidinium Perovskite Solar Cell Using Quaternary Ammonium Salt

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journal contribution
posted on 28.07.2021, 13:04 by Sungwon Song, Seok Joo Yang, Jinhyeok Choi, Se Gyo Han, Kwanghee Park, Hansol Lee, Jiwoo Min, Sunmin Ryu, Kilwon Cho
Dimensionality engineering is an effective approach to improve the stability and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A two-dimensional (2D) perovskite assembled from bulky organic cations to cover the surface of three-dimensional (3D) perovskite can repel ambient moisture and suppress ion migration across the perovskite film. This work demonstrates how the thermal stability of the bulky organic cation of a 2D perovskite affects the crystallinity of the perovskite and the optoelectrical properties of perovskite solar cells. Structural analysis of (FAPbI3)0.95(MAPbBr3)0.05 (FA = formamidinium ion, MA = methylammonium ion) mixed with a series of bulky cations shows a clear correlation between the structure of the bulky cations and the formation of surface defects in the resultant perovskite films. An organic cation with primary ammonium structure is vulnerable to a deprotonation reaction under typical perovskite-film processing conditions. Decomposition of the bulky cations results in structural defects such as iodide vacancies and metallic lead clusters at the surface of the perovskite film; these defects lead to a nonradiative recombination loss of charge carriers and to severe ion migration during operation of the device. In contrast, a bulky organic cation with a quaternary ammonium structure exhibits superior thermal stability and results in substantially fewer structural defects at the surface of the perovskite film. As a result, the corresponding PSC exhibits the PCE of 21.6% in a reverse current–voltage scan and a stabilized PCE of 20.1% with an excellent lifetime exceeding 1000 h for the encapsulated device under continuous illumination.