Sulfonate-Assisted Surface Iodide Management for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules
journal contributionposted on 2021-07-08, 16:07 authored by Ruihao Chen, Yongke Wang, Siqing Nie, Hui Shen, Yong Hui, Jian Peng, Binghui Wu, Jun Yin, Jing Li, Nanfeng Zheng
Owing to the ionic nature of lead halide perovskites, their halide-terminated surface is unstable under light-, thermal-, moisture-, or electric-field-driven stresses, resulting in the formation of unfavorable surface defects. As a result, nonradiative recombination generally occurs on perovskite films and deteriorates the efficiency, stability, and hysteresis performances of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, a surface iodide management strategy was developed through the use of cesium sulfonate to stabilize the perovskite surface. It was found that the pristine surface of common perovskite was terminated with extra iodide, that is, with an I–/Pb2+ ratio larger than 3, explaining the origination of surface-related problems. Through post-treatment of perovskite films by cesium sulfonate, the extra iodide on the surface was facilely removed and the as-exposed Pb2+ cations were chelated with sulfonate anions while maintaining the original 3D perovskite structure. Such iodide replacement and lead chelating coordination on perovskite could reduce the commonly existing surface defects and nonradiative recombination, enabling assembled PSCs with an efficiency of 22.06% in 0.12 cm2 cells and 18.1% in 36 cm2 modules with high stability.