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Substituted 4,5′-Bithiazoles as Catalytic Inhibitors of Human DNA Topoisomerase IIα

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journal contribution
posted on 22.06.2020, 14:05 by Kaja Bergant Loboda, Matej Janežič, Martina Štampar, Bojana Žegura, Metka Filipič, Andrej Perdih
Human type II topoisomerases, molecular motors that alter the DNA topology, are a major target of modern chemotherapy. Groups of catalytic inhibitors represent a new approach to overcome the known limitations of topoisomerase II poisons such as cardiotoxicity and induction of secondary tumors. Here, we present a class of substituted 4,5′-bithiazoles as catalytic inhibitors targeting the human DNA topoisomerase IIα. Based on a structural comparison of the ATPase domains of human and bacterial type II topoisomerase, a focused chemical library of 4,5′-bithiazoles was assembled and screened to identify compounds that better fit the topology of the human topo IIα adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) binding site. Selected compounds showed inhibition of human topo IIα comparable to that of the etoposide topo II drug, revealing a new class of inhibitors targeting this molecular motor. Further investigations showed that compounds act as catalytic inhibitors via competitive ATP inhibition. We also confirmed binding to the truncated ATPase domain of topo IIα and modeled the inhibitor molecular recognition with molecular simulations and dynophore models. The compounds also displayed promising cytotoxicity against HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines comparable to that of etoposide. In a more detailed study with the HepG2 cell line, there was no induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and the compounds were able to reduce cell proliferation and stop the cell cycle mainly in the G1 phase. This confirms the mechanism of action of these compounds, which differs from topo II poisons also at the cellular level. Substituted 4,5′-bithiazoles appear to be a promising class for further development toward efficient and potentially safer cancer therapies exploiting the alternative topo II inhibition paradigm.