American Chemical Society
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Structural and Elastic Properties of Empty-Pore Metalattices Extracted via Nondestructive Coherent Extreme UV Scatterometry and Electron Tomography

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-09-02, 18:36 authored by Joshua L. Knobloch, Brendan McBennett, Charles S. Bevis, Sadegh Yazdi, Travis D. Frazer, Amitava Adak, Emma E. Nelson, Jorge N. Hernández-Charpak, Hiu Y. Cheng, Alex J. Grede, Pratibha Mahale, Nabila Nabi Nova, Noel C. Giebink, Thomas E. Mallouk, John V. Badding, Henry C. Kapteyn, Begoña Abad, Margaret M. Murnane
Semiconductor metalattices consisting of a linked network of three-dimensional nanostructures with periodicities on a length scale <100 nm can enable tailored functional properties due to their complex nanostructuring. For example, by controlling both the porosity and pore size, thermal transport in these phononic metalattices can be tuned, making them promising candidates for efficient thermoelectrics or thermal rectifiers. Thus, the ability to characterize the porosity, and other physical properties, of metalattices is critical but challenging, due to their nanoscale structure and thickness. To date, only metalattices with high porosities, close to the close-packing fraction of hard spheres, have been studied experimentally. Here, we characterize the porosity, thickness, and elastic properties of a low-porosity, empty-pore silicon metalattice film (∼500 nm thickness) with periodic spherical pores (∼tens of nanometers), for the first time. We use laser-driven nanoscale surface acoustic waves probed by extreme ultraviolet scatterometry to nondestructively measure the acoustic dispersion in these thin silicon metalattice layers. By comparing the data to finite element models of the metalattice sample, we can extract Young’s modulus and porosity. Moreover, by controlling the acoustic wave penetration depth, we can also determine the metalattice layer thickness and verify the substrate properties. Additionally, we utilize electron tomography images of the metalattice to verify the geometry and validate the porosity extracted from scatterometry. These advanced characterization techniques are critical for informed and iterative fabrication of energy-efficient devices based on nanostructured metamaterials.