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Structural Investigations of MA1–xDMAxPbI3 Mixed-Cation Perovskites

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journal contribution
posted on 02.03.2020, 16:36 by Wouter M. J. Franssen, Cathy M. M. van Heumen, Arno P. M. Kentgens
Recently, a number of variations to the hybrid perovskite structure have been suggested in order to improve on the properties of methylammonium lead iodide, the archetypical hybrid halide perovskite material. In particular, with respect to the chemical stability of the material, steps should be taken. We performed an in-depth analysis of the structure of MAPbI3 upon incorporation of di­methyl­ammonium (DMA) in order to probe the integrity of the perovskite lattice in relation to changes in the organic cation. This material, with formula MA1–xDMAxPbI3, adopts a 3D perovskite structure for 0 < x < 0.2, while a nonperovskite yellow phase is formed for 0.72 < x < 1. In the perovskite phase, the methyl­ammonium and di­methyl­ammonium ions are distributed randomly throughout the lattice. For 0.05 < x < 0.2, the phase-transition temperature of the material is lowered when compared to that of pure MAPbI3 (x = 0). The material, although disordered, has apparent cubic symmetry at room temperature. This leads to a small increase in the band gap of the material of about 20 meV. Using 14N NMR relaxation experiments, the reorientation times of the MA and DMA cations in MA0.8DMA0.2PbI3 were established to be 1.6 and 2.6 ps, respectively, indicating that both ions are very mobile in this material, on par with the MA ions in MAPbI3. All of the produced MA1–xDMAxPbI3 materials were richer in DMA than the precursor solution from which they were crystallized, indicating that DMA incorporation is energetically favorable and suggesting a higher thermodynamic stability of these materials when compared to that of pure MAPbI3.