Structural Investigation of Quaternary Layered Oxides upon Na-Ion Deinsertion
journal contributionposted on 20.05.2020, 11:35 by Angelo Mullaliu, Kazutoshi Kuroki, Marlou Keller, Kei Kubota, Daniel Buchholz, Shinichi Komaba, Stefano Passerini
Na-ion batteries are emerging alternatives to Li-ion chemistries for large-scale energy storage applications. Quaternary layered oxide Na0.76Mn0.5Ni0.3Fe0.1Mg0.1O2 offers outstanding electrochemical performance in Na-ion batteries compared to pure-phase layered oxides because of the synergistic effect of the P/O-phase mixing. The material is indeed constituted by a mixture of P3, P2, and O3 phases, and a newly identified Na-free phase, i.e., nickel magnesium oxide phase, which improves heat removal and enhances the electrochemical performance. Herein, we structurally investigate, through synchrotron-radiation X-ray diffraction, the modifications occurring after full desodiation, detailing the material structural rearrangement upon Na removal and revealing the effect of two different charging protocols, i.e., constant current (CC) and constant current–constant voltage (CCCV). While the Na-free phase is electrochemically inactive, likely helping in homogenization of the thermal gradient in the electrode during cycling, O–P intergrown phases appear during the extraction of Na ions from interslab layers, and they are dependent on the desodiation level. The application of a constant voltage step at the end of the galvanostatic charge is responsible for a shortening of the interslab distance and a significant volume contraction (−11.9%).