American Chemical Society
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Structural Evolution and Photoluminescence Quenching across the FASnI3–xBrx (x = 0–3) Perovskites

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journal contribution
posted on 2024-05-30, 18:06 authored by Adam Balvanz, Majid Safdari, Marios Zacharias, Daehan Kim, Claire Welton, Evan H. Oriel, Mikaël Kepenekian, Claudine Katan, Christos D. Malliakas, Jacky Even, Vladislav Klepov, G. N. Manjunatha Reddy, Richard D. Schaller, Lin X. Chen, Ram Seshadri, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis
One of the primary methods for band gap tuning in metal halide perovskites has been halide (I/Br) mixing. Despite widespread usage of this type of chemical substitution in perovskite photovoltaics, there is still little understanding of the structural impacts of halide alloying, with the assumption being the formation of ideal solid solutions. The FASnI3–xBrx (x = 0–3) family of compounds provides the first example where the assumption breaks down, as the composition space is broken into two unique regimes (x = 0–2.9; x = 2.9–3) based on their average structure with the former having a 3D and the latter having an extended 3D (pseudo 0D) structure. Pair distribution function (PDF) analyses further suggest a dynamic 5s2 lone pair expression resulting in increasing levels of off-centering of the central Sn as the Br concentration is increased. These antiferroelectric distortions indicate that even the x = 0–2.9 phase space behaves as a nonideal solid-solution on a more local scale. Solid-state NMR confirms the difference in local structure yielding greater insight into the chemical nature and local distributions of the FA+ cation. In contrast to the FAPbI3–xBrx series, a drastic photoluminescence (PL) quenching is observed with x ≥ 1.9 compounds having no observable PL. Our detailed studies attribute this quenching to structural transitions induced by the distortions of the [SnBr6] octahedra in response to stereochemically expressed lone pairs of electrons. This is confirmed through density functional theory, having a direct impact on the electronic structure.