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Structural Conformers of (1,3-Dithiol-2-ylidene)ethanethioamides: The Balance between Thioamide Rotation and Preservation of Classical Sulfur–Sulfur Hypervalent Bonds

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journal contribution
posted on 2015-01-02, 00:00 authored by Pedro Fuertes, María García-Valverde, Ricardo Pascual, Teresa Rodríguez, Josefa Rojo, José García-Calvo, Patricia Calvo, José V. Cuevas, Gabriel García-Herbosa, Tomás Torroba
The reaction of N-(2-phthalimidoethyl)-N-alkylisopropylamines and S2Cl2 gave 4-N-(2-phthalimidoethyl)-N-alkylamino-5-chloro-1,2-dithiol-3-thiones that quantitatively cycloadded to dimethyl or diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate to give stable thioacid chlorides, which in turn reacted with one equivalent of aniline or a thiole to give thioanilides or a dithioester. Several compounds of this series showed atropisomers that were studied by a combination of dynamic NMR, simulation of the signals, conformational analysis by DFT methods, and single crystal X-ray diffraction, showing a good correlation between the theoretical calculations, the experimental values of energies, and the preferred conformations in the solid state. The steric hindering of the crowded substitution at the central amine group was found to be the reason for the presence of permanent atropisomers in this series of compounds and the cause of a unique disposition of the thioxo group at close-to-right angles with respect to the plane defined by the 1,3-dithiole ring in the dithiafulvene derivatives, thus breaking the sulfur–sulfur hypervalent bond that is always found in this kind of compounds.