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Structural Characterization of the 1:1 Adduct Formed between the Antitumor Antibiotic Hedamycin and the Oligonucleotide Duplex d(CACGTG)2 by 2D NMR Spectroscopy

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journal contribution
posted on 23.07.1996, 00:00 by Spiro Pavlopoulos, Wendy Bicknell, David J. Craik, Geoffrey Wickham
2D NMR spectroscopic methods have been used to determine the structure of the adduct formed between the antitumor antibiotic hedamycin and the oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplex d(CACGTG)2. Evidence for both intercalation and alkylation in the adduct was observed, and a model for the binding interaction was constructed based on intermolecular NOEs and distance-restrained molecular dynamics. In our computationally refined model, the anthrapyrantrione chromophore of hedamycin is intercalated between the 5‘-CG-3‘ bases with the two aminosugar groups placed in the minor groove and the six carbon bisepoxide side chain located in the major groove. The anglosamine sugar attached at C8 is oriented in the 3‘ direction relative to the intercalation site, while the N,N-dimethylvancosamine attached at C10 is oriented to the 5‘ side, with each aminosugar wedged between a guanine exocyclic amino group and one of the groove walls. The terminal epoxide carbon C18 is covalently bound to the N7 atom of the central guanine, as evidenced by lability of the C8 hydrogen of this purine upon reaction with hedamycin. Our binding model places the C10-attached N,N-dimethylvancosamine of hedamycin in van der Waals contact with the alkylated strand. A strong NOE contact verifies the close proximity of the terminal methyl group (C19) of the bisepoxide side chain to the methyl group of the thymine on the 3‘ side of the alkylated guanine. This, in conjunction with other data, suggests hydrophobic interactions between the bisepoxide chain and the floor of the major groove may contribute to sequence recognition. Furthermore, it is proposed that the 5‘-CGT sequence selectivity of hedamycin arises, in part, from complementarity in shape between the chromophore substituents and the major and minor groove at the binding site.