American Chemical Society
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Straightforward and Relatively Safe Process for the Fluoride Exchange of Trivalent and Tetravalent Group 13 and 14 Phthalocyanines

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journal contribution
posted on 2019-03-14, 00:00 authored by Trevor M. Grant, Victoria McIntyre, Jenya Vestfrid, Hasan Raboui, Robin T. White, Zheng-Hong Lu, Benoît H. Lessard, Timothy P. Bender
To avoid the use of hydrofluoric acid, a series of fluorinated trivalent and tetravalent metal-containing phthalocyanines (MPcs) were synthesized using a straightforward one-step halide substitution process using cesium fluoride (CsF) as the fluoride source and by reflux in N,N-dimethylformamide for less than an hour. The resulting fluoro MPcs were characterized and compared to the parent chloro MPcs. In some cases, very little change in properties was observed between the fluoro MPcs and the chloro MPcs. In other cases, such as fluoro aluminum phthalocyanine, a blue shift in the absorbance characteristics and an increase in oxidation and reduction potential of as much as 0.22 V was observed compared to the chloro derivative. Thermo gravimetric analysis was performed on all halo-MPcs, indicating that the choice of halo substitution on the axial position can have an effect on the decomposition or sublimation temperature of the final compound. After initial establishment and characterization of the fluoro MPcs, the halide substitution reaction of difluoro silicon phthalocyanine (F2-SiPc) was further explored by scaling the reaction up to a gram scale as well as considering tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) as an additional safe fluoride source. The scaled-up reactions producing F2-SiPc using CsF and TBAF as fluoride exchange sources were successfully reproducible, resulting in reaction yields of 100 and 73%, respectively. Both processes led to pure final products but results indicate that CsF, as the fluoride exchange reagent, appears to be the superior reaction process as it has a much higher yield.