American Chemical Society
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Static Micromixer–Coaxial Electrospray Synthesis of Theranostic Lipoplexes

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journal contribution
posted on 2012-03-27, 00:00 authored by Yun Wu, Lei Li, Yicheng Mao, Ly James Lee
Theranostic lipoplexes are an integrated nanotherapeutic system with diagnostic imaging capability and therapeutic functions. They hold great promise to improve current cancer treatments; however, producing uniform theranostic lipoplexes with multiple components in a reproducible manner is a highly challenging task. Conventional methods, such as bulk mixing, are not able to achieve this goal because of their macroscale and random nature. Here we report a novel technique, called the static micromixer–coaxial electrospray (MCE), to synthesize theranostic lipoplexes in a single step with high reproducibility. In this work, quantum dots (QD605) and Cy5-labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (Cy5-G3139) were chosen as the model imaging reagent and therapeutic drug, respectively. Compared with bulk mixing, QD605/Cy5-G3139-loaded lipoplexes produced by MCE were highly uniform with polydispersity of 0.024 ± 0.006 and mean diameter by volume of 194 ± 15 nm. MCE also showed higher encapsulation efficiency of QD605 and Cy5-G3139. QD605 and Cy5 also formed the Förster resonance energy transfer pair, and thus the cellular uptake and intracellular fate of theranostic lipoplexes could be visualized by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The lipoplexes were efficiently delivered to A549 cells (non-small cell lung cancer cell line) and down-regulated the Bcl-2 gene expression by 48 ± 6%.