Stable and Antibacterial Magnesium–Graphene Nanocomposite-Based Implants for Bone Repair
journal contributionposted on 16.10.2020 by Narges Safari, Nasim Golafshan, Mahshid Kharaziha, Mohammad Reza Toroghinejad, Lizette Utomo, Jos Malda, Miguel Castilho
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
Magnesium (Mg)-based alloys are promising biodegradable materials for bone repair applications. However, due to their rapid degradation and high corrosion rate, Mg-based alloys are typically associated with in vivo infections and implant failure. This study evaluated the synergistic stability and anti-inflammatory properties that could potentially be achieved by the modification of the Mg alloy with graphene nanoparticles (Gr). Incorporation of low dosages of Gr (0.18 and 0.50 wt %) in a Mg alloy with aluminum (Al, 1 wt %) and copper (Cu, 0.25 wt %) was successfully achieved by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. Notably, the degradation rate of the Mg-based alloys was reduced approximately 4-fold and the bactericidal activity was enhanced up to 5-fold with incorporation of only 0.18 wt % Gr to the Mg–1Al–Cu matrix. Moreover, the modified Mg-based nanocomposites with 0.18 wt % Gr demonstrated compressive properties within the range of native cancellous bone (modulus of approximately 6 GPa), whereas in vitro studies with human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) showed high cytocompatibility and superior osteogenic properties compared to non-Gr-modified Mg–1Al–Cu implants. Overall, this study provides foundations for the fabrication of stable, yet fully resorbable, Mg-based bone implants that could reduce implant-associated infections.