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Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations of a Flavo-diiron Enzyme Implicate New Diiron Site Structures

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journal contribution
posted on 30.07.2017, 00:00 authored by Andrew C. Weitz, Nitai Giri, Jonathan D. Caranto, Donald M. Kurtz, Emile L. Bominaar, Michael P. Hendrich
Flavo-diiron proteins (FDPs) are non-heme iron containing enzymes that are widespread in anaerobic bacteria, archaea, and protozoa, serving as the terminal components to dioxygen and nitric oxide reductive scavenging pathways in these organisms. FDPs contain a dinuclear iron active site similar to that in hemerythrin, ribonucleotide reductase, and methane monooxygenase, all of which can bind NO and O2. However, only FDP competently turns over NO to N2O. Here, EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies allow electronic characterization of the diferric and diferrous species of FDP. The exchange-coupling constant J (Hex = JS1·S2) was found to increase from +20 cm–1 to +32 cm–1 upon reduction of the diferric to the diferrous species, indicative of (1) at least one hydroxo bridge between the iron ions for both states and (2) a change to the diiron core structure upon reduction. In comparison to characterized diiron proteins and synthetic complexes, the experimental values were consistent with a dihydroxo bridged diferric core, which loses one hydroxo bridge upon reduction. DFT calculations of these structures gave values of J and Mössbauer parameters in agreement with experiment. Although the crystal structure shows a hydrogen bond between the iron bound aspartate and the bridging solvent molecule, the DFT calculations of structures consistent with the crystal structure gave calculated values of J incompatible with the spectroscopic results. We conclude that the crystal structure of the diferric state does not represent the frozen solution structure and that a mono-μ-hydroxo diferrous species is the catalytically functional state that reacts with NO and O2. The new EPR spectroscopic probe of the diferric state indicated that the diferric structure of FDP prior to and immediately after turnover with NO are flavin mononucleotide (FMN) dependent, implicating an additional proton transfer role for FMN in turnover of NO.