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Spectroscopic and Photophysical Properties of Hexanuclear Rhenium(III) Chalcogenide Clusters

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journal contribution
posted on 01.04.2003, 00:00 by Thomas G. Gray, Christina M. Rudzinski, Emily E. Meyer, R. H. Holm, Daniel G. Nocera
The electronic, vibrational, and excited-state properties of hexanuclear rhenium(III) chalcogenide clusters based on the [Re63-Q)8]2+ (Q = S, Se) core have been investigated by spectroscopic and theoretical methods. Ultraviolet or visible excitation of [Re6Q8]2+ clusters produces luminescence with ranges in maxima of 12 500−15 100 cm-1, emission quantum yields of 1−24%, and emission lifetimes of 2.6−22.4 μs. Nonradiative decay rate constants and the luminescence maxima follow the trend predicted by the energy gap law (EGL). Examination of 24 clusters in solution and 14 in the solid phase establish that exocluster ligands engender the observed EGL behavior; clusters with oxygen- or nitrogen-based apical ligands achieve maximal quantum yields and the longest lifetimes. The excited-state decay mechanism was investigated by applying nonradiative decay models to temperature-dependent emission experiments. Solid-state Raman spectra were recorded to identify vibrational contributions to excited-state deactivation; spectral assignments were enabled by normal coordinate analysis afforded from Hartree−Fock and DFT calculations. Excited-state decay is interpreted with a model where normal modes largely centered on the [Re6Q8]2+ core induce nonradiative relaxation. Hartree−Fock and DFT calculations of the electronic structure of the hexarhenium family of compounds support such a model. These experimental and theoretical studies of [Re6Q8]2+ luminescence provide a framework for elaborating a variety of luminescence-based applications of the largest series of isoelectronic clusters yet discovered.