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Spectroscopic Investigation of the Effect of Salt on Binding of Tartrazine with Two Homologous Serum Albumins: Quantification by Use of the Debye–Hückel Limiting Law and Observation of Enthalpy–Entropy Compensation

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journal contribution
posted on 30.08.2012, 00:00 by Priyanka Bolel, Shubhashis Datta, Niharendu Mahapatra, Mintu Halder
Formation of ion pair between charged molecule and protein can lead to interesting biochemical phenomena. We report the evolution of thermodynamics of the binding of tartrazine, a negatively charged azo colorant, and serum albumins with salt. The dye binds predominantly electrostatically in low buffer strengths; however, on increasing salt concentration, affinity decreases considerably. The calculated thermodynamic parameters in high salt indicate manifestation of nonelectrostatic interactions, namely, van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding. Site-marker competitive binding studies and docking simulations indicate that the dye binds with HSA in the warfarin site and with BSA at the interface of warfarin and ibuprofen binding sites. The docked poses indicate nearby amino acid positive side chains, which are possibly responsible for electrostatic interaction. Using the Debye–Hückel interionic attraction theory for binding equilibria, it is shown that, for electrostatic binding the calculated free energy change increases linearly with square root of ionic strength. Also UV–vis, fluorescence, CD data indicate a decrease of interaction with salt concentration. This study quantitatively relates how ionic strength modulates the strength of the protein–ligand electrostatic interaction. The binding enthalpy and entropy have been found to compensate one another. The enthalpy–entropy compensation (EEC), general property of weak intermolecular interactions, has been discussed.