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Sorption of Triazine and Organophosphorus Pesticides on Soil and Biochar

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journal contribution
posted on 21.02.2016, 16:26 by Minori Uchimiya, Lynda H. Wartelle, Veera M. Boddu
Sorption and degradation are the primary processes controlling the efficacy and runoff contamination risk of agrochemicals. Considering the longevity of biochar in agroecosystems, biochar soil amendment must be carefully evaluated on the basis of the target agrochemical and soil types to achive agricultural (minimum impact on efficacy) and environmental (minimum runoff contamination) benefits. In this study, sorption–desorption isotherms and kinetics of triazine (deisopropylatrazine) and organophosphorus (malathion, parathion, and diazinon) pesticides were first investigated on various soil types ranging from clayey, acidic Puerto Rican forest soil (PR) to heavy metal contaminated small arms range (SAR) soils of sandy and peaty nature. On PR, malathion sorption did not reach equilibrium during the 3 week study. Comparison of solution-phase molar phosphorus and agrochemical concentrations suggested that degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides were bound on soil surfaces. The degree of sorption on different soils showed the following increasing trend: deisopropylatrazine < malathion < diazinon < parathion. While sorption of deisopropylatrazine on SAR soils was not affected by diazinon or malathion, deisopropylatrazine suppressed the sorption of diazinon and malathion. Deisopropylatrazine irreversibly sorbed on biochars, and greater sorption was observed with higher Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of biochar (4.7–2061 mg g–1). The results suggested the utility of biochar for remediation of sites where concentrations of highly stable and mobile agrochemicals exceed the water-quality benchmarks.