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Solution-Phase Synthesis of Vanadium Intercalated 1T′-WS2 with Tunable Electronic Properties

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-08, 15:36 authored by Kuixin Zhu, Yiyin Tao, Daniel E. Clark, Wei Hong, Christina W. Li
Metal ion intercalation into Group VI transition metal dichalcogenides enables control over their carrier transport properties. In this work, we demonstrate a low-temperature, solution-phase synthetic method to intercalate cationic vanadium complexes into bulk WS2. Vanadium intercalation expands the interlayer spacing from 6.2 to 14.2 Å and stabilizes the 1T′ phase of WS2. Kelvin-probe force microscopy measurements indicate that vanadium binding in the van der Waals gap causes an increase in the Fermi level of 1T′-WS2 by 80 meV due to hybridization of vanadium 3d orbitals with the conduction band of the TMD. As a result, the carrier type switches from p-type to n-type, and carrier mobility increases by an order of magnitude relative to the Li-intercalated precursor. Both the conductivity and thermal activation barrier for carrier transport are readily tuned by varying the concentration of VCl3 during the cation-exchange reaction.

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