Solid-Phase Synthesis of m-Phenylene Ethynylene Heterosequence Oligomers
journal contributionposted on 07.07.2006, 00:00 by Erin L. Elliott, Christian R. Ray, Stefan Kraft, Joseph R. Atkins, Jeffrey S. Moore
Both homo- and heterosequence m-phenylene ethynylene oligomers are synthesized using a conceptually simple iterative solid-phase strategy. Oligomers are attached to Merrifield's resin through a known triazene-type linkage. The phenylene ethynylene molecular backbone is constructed through a series of palladium-mediated cross-coupling reactions. The strategy employs two types of monomers that bear orthogonal reactivity, one being a monoprotected bisethynyl arene and the other being a 3-bromo-5-iodo arene. The catalyst conditions are tailored to the requirements of each monomer type. The monoprotected bisethynyl arene is coupled to the growing chain in 2 h at room temperature using a Pd(I) dimer precatalyst (tBu3P(Pd(μ-Cl)(μ-2-methyl allyl)Pd)PtBu3) in conjunction with ZnBr2 and diisopropylamine. In alternate steps, the resin is deprotected in situ with TBAF and coupled to the 3-bromo-5-iodo arene using the iodo selective Pd(tri-2-furylphosphine)4 catalyst in conjunction with CuI and piperidine; this reaction is also completed in 2 h at room temperature. These cross-coupling events are alternated until an oligomer of the desired length is achieved. The oligomer is then cleaved from the resin using CH2I2/I2 at 110 °C and purified using preparatory GPC. Using this method, a series of homo- and heterosequence oligomers up to 12 units in length in excellent yield and purity were synthesized on the 100 mg scale. Longer oligomers were attempted; however, deletion sequences were found in oligomers longer than 12 units.