American Chemical Society
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Solid–Liquid–Gas Phase Equilibria for Small Phenylene-Thiophene Co-Oligomers

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-09-16, 19:34 authored by Carlos F. R. A. C. Lima, José C. S. Costa, Artur M. S. Silva, Adélio Mendes, Luís M. N. B. F. Santos
This work reports a comprehensive experimental evaluation of the solid–liquid–gas phase equilibria for five representative phenylene-thiophene co-oligomers (3-ring aromatic compounds having both phenyl and thienyl units). The melting temperatures and corresponding standard molar enthalpies and entropies of fusion were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The equilibrium vapor pressures of the crystalline solids as a function of temperature were measured by a combined Knudsen/quartz-crystal effusion method, with the consequent derivation of the standard molar enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of sublimation. The thermodynamic properties of vaporization were estimated from the fusion and sublimation data. The results were analyzed together with the literature data for the corresponding phenylene and thiophene homo-oligomers. The thermodynamic properties of fusion and sublimation exhibited a dependence on ring identity and position that cannot be adequately described by a simple group additivity reasoning. The plot of the Gibbs energy of sublimation as a function of the number of thienyl rings in the co-oligomer showed the existence of two series. Terminal 3-thienyl rings and a linear molecular shape were found to be consistent factors contributing to the stabilization of the crystal phase. The higher melting temperatures and lower volatilities of crystalline 3-thienyl compounds were tentatively explained by the ability of these rings to maximize intermolecular C–H···π interactions independently of the sulfur position. The optical energy gaps, as measured by UV–vis in solution, were found to lie within the values for typical organic semiconductors (<4 eV) and to decrease for co-oligomers containing more 2-thienyl units, following the increased ring–ring planarity of the molecules. The surface morphology of vapor-deposited thin films suggests a stronger tendency of the co-oligomers, if compared to their corresponding homo-oligomers p-terphenyl and terthiophene, to form less amorphous films.