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SnO2@PANI Core–Shell Nanorod Arrays on 3D Graphite Foam: A High-Performance Integrated Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
journal contributionposted on 2017-03-01, 00:00 authored by Feng Zhang, Chengkai Yang, Xin Gao, Shuai Chen, Yiran Hu, Huanqin Guan, Yurong Ma, Jin Zhang, Henghui Zhou, Limin Qi
The rational design and controllable fabrication of electrode materials with tailored structures and superior performance is highly desirable for the next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, a novel three-dimensional (3D) graphite foam (GF)@SnO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs)@polyaniline (PANI) hybrid architecture was constructed via solvothermal growth followed by electrochemical deposition. Aligned SnO2 NRAs were uniformly grown on the surface of GF, and a PANI shell with a thickness of ∼40 nm was coated on individual SnO2 nanorods, forming a SnO2@PANI core–shell structure. Benefiting from the synergetic effect of 3D GF with large surface area and high conductivity, SnO2 NRAs offering direct pathways for electrons and lithium ions, and the conductive PANI shell that accommodates the large volume variation of SnO2, the binder-free, integrated GF@SnO2 NRAs@PANI electrode for LIBs exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and good electrochemical stability. A high discharge capacity of 540 mAh g–1 (calculated by the total mass of the electrode) was achieved after 50 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g–1. Moreover, the electrode demonstrated superior rate performance with a discharge capacity of 414 mAh g–1 at a high rate of 3 A g–1.