Size-Dependent Translocation of Nanoemulsions via Oral Delivery
journal contributionposted on 15.06.2017, 00:00 by Fei Xia, Wufa Fan, Sifan Jiang, Yuhua Ma, Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Ejaj Ahmad, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Wei Wu
The in vivo translocation of nanoemulsions (NEs) was tracked by imaging tools with an emphasis on the size effect. To guarantee the accurate identification of NEs in vivo, water-quenching environment-responsive near-infrared fluorescent probes were used to label NEs. Imaging evidence confirmed prominent digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and oral absorption of integral NEs that survive digestion by enteric epithelia in a size-dependent way. In general, reducing particle size leads to slowed in vitro lipolysis and in vivo digestion, a prolonged lifetime in the small intestine, increased enteric epithelial uptake, and enhanced transportation to various organs. Histological examination revealed a pervasive distribution of smaller NEs (80 nm) into enterocytes and basolateral tissues, whereas bigger ones (550, 1000 nm) primarily adhered to villi surfaces. Following epithelial uptake, NEs are transported through the lymphatics with a fraction of approximately 3–6%, suggesting a considerable contribution of the lymphatic pathway to overall absorption. The majority of absorbed NEs were found 1 h post administration in the livers and lungs. A similar size dependency of cellular uptake and transmonolayer transport was confirmed in Caco-2 cell lines as well. In conclusion, the size-dependent translocation of integral NEs was confirmed with an absolute bioavailability of at least 6%, envisioning potential applications in oral delivery of labile entities.