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Single-Crystal NMR Characterization of Halogen Bonds

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journal contribution
posted on 21.06.2019, 00:00 by Yijue Xu, Bulat Gabidullin, David L. Bryce
Oxygen-17-enriched triphenylphosphine oxide and three of its halogen-bonded cocrystals featuring 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene and 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene as halogen bond donors have been characterized by 31P and 17O single-crystal NMR spectroscopy. Single-crystal NMR allows for the measurement of not only the magnitudes of various NMR interaction tensors, but also their orientations relative to the crystal lattice and therefore relative to the halogen bonds themselves. 31P chemical shift tensors, 17O chemical shift tensors, 17O quadrupolar coupling tensors, and 31P–17O indirect nuclear spin–spin (J) coupling tensors are reported here for PO···I halogen bonds. The angular deviations in the directions of the pseudo-unique components of the 31P chemical shift tensors, the 17O chemical shift tensors, and the 17O quadrupolar coupling tensors from the direction of the oxygen–iodine halogen bond correlate with the deviations in linearity of the PO···I halogen bond. There is also a clear decrease in anisotropy and an increase in asymmetry of the J(31P,17O) coupling tensors attributable to the formation of iodine–oxygen halogen bonds. The small but quantifiable changes in the tensors are consistent with the weak nature of these halogen bonds relative to the PO motif. Overall, this work establishes single-crystal NMR as a novel probe of halogen bonds in solids. Analysis of the results has provided insights into the correlations between the magnitude and orientation of various NMR interaction tensors and the local geometry of the halogen bond. Gauge-including projector-augmented wave computations corroborate the experimental findings.