American Chemical Society
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Simple and User-Friendly Methodology for Crystal Water Determination by Quantitative Proton NMR Spectroscopy in Deuterium Oxide

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-11-04, 02:33 authored by Tuulia Tynkkynen, Maria Vassaki, Tommi E. Tiihonen, Vesa-Pekka Lehto, Konstantinos D. Demadis, Petri A. Turhanen
In drug research and development, knowledge of the precise structure of an active ingredient is crucial. However, it is equally important to know the water content of the drug molecule, particularly the number of crystal waters present in its structure. Such knowledge ensures the avoidance of drug dosage and formulation errors since the number of water molecules affects the physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of the molecule. Several methods have been used for crystal water measurements of organic compounds, of which thermogravimetry and crystallography may be the most common ones. To the best of our knowledge, solution-state NMR spectroscopy has not been used for crystal water determination in deuterium oxide. Quantitative NMR (qNMR) method will be presented in the paper with a comparison of single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis results. The qNMR method for water content measurement is straightforward, reproducible, and accurate, including measurement of 1H NMR spectrum before and after the addition of the analyte compound, and the result can be calculated after integration of the reference compound, analyte, and HDO signals using the given equation. In practical terms, there is no need for weighing the samples under study, which makes it simple and is a clear advantage to the current determination methods. In addition, the crystal structures of two model bisphosphonates used herein are reported: that of monopotassium etidronate dihydrate and monosodium zoledronate trihydrate.