American Chemical Society
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Sequential Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Structures for Efficient and Switchable Nonlinear Beam Shaping

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-01-20, 06:47 authored by Chaowei Wang, Pengcheng Chen, Dunzhao Wei, Leran Zhang, Zihang Zhang, Liqun Xu, Yanlei Hu, Jiawen Li, Yong Zhang, Min Xiao, Jiaru Chu, Dong Wu
Nonlinear beam shaping can be dynamically controlled by temperature or polarization to form switchable nonlinear structured beams, which constitute an unprecedented system for realizing optical encryption at new frequencies and high-dimensional nonclassical light sources. However, previous works were limited by a trade-off between the conversion efficiency and the modulation dimension of the beam. It is still technologically challenging to achieve efficient and switchable multidimensional nonlinear beam shaping. Here, we demonstrate switchable generation of nonlinear structured beams via three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear photonic crystals (NPCs) fabricated by femtosecond laser writing technique with considerable conversion efficiency. The 3D NPCs contain different sequential 3D arrays of spatially modulated χ(2) nonlinearity designed by computer-generated hologram (CGH) along the optical y-axis (LiNbO3 crystal). The output direction of the nonlinear beams can be changed by the carrier frequencies, while their efficiencies can be increased by the quasi-phase matching condition.