American Chemical Society
am7b11423_si_001.pdf (7.74 MB)

Sequential Delivery of Doxorubicin and Zoledronic Acid to Breast Cancer Cells by CB[7]-Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

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journal contribution
posted on 2017-10-16, 00:00 authored by Farah Benyettou, Marwa Alhashimi, Matthew O’Connor, Renu Pasricha, Jeremy Brandel, Hassan Traboulsi, Javed Mazher, John-Carl Olsen, Ali Trabolsi
Drug-loaded magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for the sequential delivery of the antiresorptive agent zoledronic acid (Zol) and the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin (Dox) to breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Zol was attached to bare iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) via phosphonate coordination to form Z-NPs. The unbound imidazole of Zol was then used to complex the organic macrocycle CB[7] to obtain CZ-NPs. Dox was complexed to the CZ-NPs to form the fully loaded particles (DCZ-NPs), which were stable in solution at 37 °C and physiological pH (7.4). Fluorescence spectroscopy established that Dox is released in solution from DCZ-NPs suddenly (i) when the particles are subjected to magnetically induced heating to 42 °C at low pH (5.0) and (ii) in the presence of glutathione (GSH). Mass spectrometry indicated that Zol is released slowly in solution at low pH after Dox release. Magnetic measurements with a magnetic reader revealed that DCZ-NPs are internalized preferentially by MCF-7 cells versus nonmalignant cells (HEK293). Zol and Dox acted synergistically when delivered by the particles. DCZ-NPs caused a decrease in the viability of MCF-7 cells that was greater than the net decrease caused when the drugs were added to the cells individually at concentrations equivalent to those delivered by the particles. MCF-7 cells were treated with DCZ-NPs and subjected to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) which, with the nanoparticles present, raised the temperature of the cells and triggered the intracellular release of Dox, as indicated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The cytotoxic effects of the DCZ-NPs on MCF-7 cells were enhanced 10-fold by AMF-induced heating. DCZ-NPs were also able to completely inhibit MCF-7 cell adhesion and invasion in vitro, indicating the potential of the particles to act as antimetastatic agents. Together these results demonstrate that DCZ-NPs warrant development as a system for combined chemo- and thermo-therapeutic treatment of cancer.