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Self-Consistent Scheme Combining MD and Order‑N DFT Methods: An Improved Set of Nonpolarizable Force Fields for Ionic Liquids

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journal contribution
posted on 24.12.2019, 12:36 by Yoshiki Ishii, Nobuyuki Matubayasi
The nonpolarizable force field of ionic liquids is tuned by using the self-consistent scheme of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and first-principles calculation based on the order-N density functional theory (DFT). The atomic charges are determined by using the whole MD cell for DFT calculation and accounts effectively for the many-body effects of charge transfer and intramolecular polarization. The charges represent effective interactions in the condensed phase within the framework of the nonpolarizable force field and can be an alternative for an explicitly many-body model incorporating, for example, polarizability. Here we demonstrate the performance of nonpolarizable force field determined with the MD-DFT self-consistent scheme in imidazolium-, pyrrolidinium-, and ammonium-based ionic liquids. The variation ranges of molecular charges are much larger with the compositions of the ionic liquid than with the thermodynamic conditions, and the charge-ordering structures become systematically weaker with the effective charges. For energetic properties, while the calculated heat of vaporization depends on the atomic and molecular charges, the corresponding heat capacity is not strongly affected by the DFT-based variation. For transport properties, the self-diffusion coefficient, electrical conductivity, and viscosity vary much more in the self-consistent scheme. The effective DFT charge is observed to enhance the fluidity of ionic liquids and improve the accuracy of electrical conductivity and viscosity. This is due to the weakened interactions among the ions, and the too slow motions observed with a full-charge model are well corrected through the iteration of MD and DFT. We therefore conclude that the set of nonpolarizable force fields obtained with the MD-DFT self-consistent scheme leads to better description of transport properties of ionic liquids.