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Self-Assembled Dehydro[24]annulene Monolayers at the Liquid/Solid Interface: Toward On-Surface Synthesis of Tubular π‑Conjugated Nanowires

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journal contribution
posted on 16.05.2016, 00:00 by Mitsuharu Suzuki, Zhaoqi Guo, Kazukuni Tahara, Juliet F. Khosrowabadi Kotyk, Huan Nguyen, Jun Gotoda, Kohei Iritani, Yves Rubin, Yoshito Tobe
We have studied the self-assembly behavior of dehydro[24]­annulene (D24A) derivatives 1, 2a2d, and 3a3c at the liquid/solid interface using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Both the relative placement and the nature of the four D24A substituents strongly influence the self-assembly pattern. Overall, the eight D24A derivatives examined in this study display seven types of 2D packing patterns. The D24A derivatives 1, 2a, and 3a have either two or four stearate groups and adopt face-on configurations of their macrocyclic cores with respect to the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface. Their 2D packing pattern is determined by the interchain spacings and number of stearate substituents. The D24A derivatives 2b2d and 3b3c bear hydrogen-bonding carbamate groups to further strengthen intermolecular interactions. Face-on patterns were also observed for most of these compounds, while an unstable edge-on self-assembly was observed in the case of 2b at room temperature. Stable edge-on self-assemblies of D24A derivatives were sought for this work as an important stepping stone to achieving the on-surface topochemical polymerization of these carbon-rich macrocycles into tubular π-conjugated nanowires. The overall factors determining the 2D packing patterns of D24As at the liquid/solid interface are discussed on the basis of theoretical simulations, providing useful guidelines for controlling the self-assembly pattern of future D24A macrocycles.