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Screening of Pro–Asp Sequences Exposed on Bacteriophage M13 as an Ideal Anchor for Gold Nanocubes

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journal contribution
posted on 26.05.2017, 00:00 by Hwa Kyoung Lee, Yujean Lee, Hyori Kim, Hye-Eun Lee, Hyejin Chang, Ki Tae Nam, Dae Hong Jeong, Junho Chung
Bacteriophages are thought to be ideal vehicles for linking antibodies to nanoparticles. Here, we define the sequence of peptides exposed as a fusion protein on M13 bacteriophages to yield optimal binding of gold nanocubes and efficient bacteriophage amplification. We generated five helper bacteriophage libraries using AE­(X)2DP, AE­(X)3DP, AE­(X)4DP, AE­(X)5DP, and AE­(X)6DP as the exposed portion of pVIII, in which X was a randomized amino acid residue encoded by the nucleotide sequence NNK. Efficient phage amplification was achievable only in the AE­(X)2DP, AE­(X)3DP, and AE­(X)4DP libraries. Through biopanning with gold nanocubes, we enriched the phage clones and selected the clone with the highest fold change after enrichment. This clone displayed Pro–Asp on the surface of the bacteriophage and had amplification yields similar to those of the wild-type helper bacteriophage (VCSM13). The clone displayed even binding of gold nanocubes along its length and minimal aggregation after binding. We conclude that, for efficient amplification, the exposed pVIII amino acid length should be limited to six residues and Ala–Glu–Pro–Asp–Asp–Pro (AEPDDP) is the ideal fusion protein sequence for guaranteeing the optimal formation of a complex with gold nanocubes.