Safe Synthesis of MAX and MXene: Guidelines to Reduce Risk During Synthesis
journal contributionposted on 2021-08-18, 16:34 authored by Christopher E. Shuck, Kimberly Ventura-Martinez, Adam Goad, Simge Uzun, Mikhail Shekhirev, Yury Gogotsi
MXenes are proven to be promising materials for a wide variety of applications, from electrochemical energy storage to environmental remediation, leading to their increasing popularity in research. With an influx of new researchers focused on MXenes, it is increasingly important to ensure the safe and reliable production of these materials. Herein, we describe the safe synthesis of MXenes, from their precursors (MAX) to the final product (delaminated MXene), focusing on HF-based etching approaches. Using the synthesis of Ti3C2Tx MXene as an example, we discuss safety risks associated with each step of the procedure and demonstrate necessary precautions for the safe, reproducible, and reliable synthesis of MXenes. Finally, we overview the most updated research on MXene safety from a cytotoxicity aspect.