Role of Nanoscale Hydroxyapatite in Disease Suppression of Fusarium-Infected Tomato
journal contributionposted on 2021-06-03, 02:29 authored by Chuanxin Ma, Qingqing Li, Weili Jia, Heping Shang, Jian Zhao, Yi Hao, Chunyang Li, Mason Tomko, Nubia Zuverza-Mena, Wade Elmer, Jason C. White, Baoshan Xing
The present study investigated the mechanisms by which large- and small-sized nanoscale hydroxyapatite (nHA) suppressed Fusarium-induced wilt disease in tomato. Both nHA sizes at 9.3 mg/L (low) and 46.5 mg/L (high dose) phosphorus (P) were foliar-sprayed on Fusarium-infected tomato leaf surfaces three times. Diseased shoot mass was increased by 40% upon exposure to the low dose of large-sized nHA compared to disease controls. Exposure to both nHA sizes significantly elevated phenylalanine ammonialyase activity and total phenolic content in Fusarium-infected shoots by 30–80% and 40–68%, respectively. Shoot salicylic acid content was also increased by 10–45%, suggesting the potential relationship between antioxidant and phytohormone pathways in nHA-promoted defense against fungal infection. Exposure to the high dose of both nHA sizes increased the root P content by 27–46%. A constrained analysis of principal coordinates suggests that high dose of both nHA sizes significantly altered the fatty acid profile in diseased tomato. Particularly, the diseased root C18:3 content was increased by 28–31% in the large-sized nHA treatments, indicating that nHA remodeled the cell membrane as part of defense against Fusarium infection. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the important role of nHA in promoting disease suppression for the sustainable use of nHA in nanoenabled agriculture.