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Rhenium in Homogeneous Catalysis: [ReBrH(NO)(labile ligand)(large-bite-angle diphosphine)] Complexes as Highly Active Catalysts in Olefin Hydrogenations

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journal contribution
posted on 01.06.2011, 00:00 by Balz Dudle, Kunjanpillai Rajesh, Olivier Blacque, Heinz Berke
The reaction of [ReBr2(MeCN)(NO)(P∩P)] (P∩P = 1,1′-bisdiphenylphosphinoferrocene (dppfc) (1a), 1,1′-bisdiisopropylphosphinopherrocene (diprpfc) (1b), 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)diphenyl ether (dpephos) (1c), 10,11-dihydro-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)dibenzo[b,f]oxepine (homoxantphos) (1d) and 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)-10,10-dimethylphenoxasilin (Sixantphos) (1e)) led in the presence of HSiEt3 and ethylene to formation of the ethylene hydride complexes [ReBrH(η2-C2H4)(NO)(P∩P)] (3a,b,d), the MeCN ethyl complex [ReBr(Et)(MeCN)(NO)(dpephos)] (5c) and two ortho-metalated stereoisomers of [ReBr(η2-C2H4)(NO)(η3-o-C6H4–Sixantphos)] 8e(up) and 8e(down). The complexes 3a,b,d, and 5c and the isomers of 8e showed high catalytic activity (TOFs ranging from 22 to 4870 h–1, TONs up to 24000) in the hydrogenation of monosubstituted olefins. For 8e(down) and 8e(up) a remarkable functional group tolerance and catalyst stability were noticed. Kinetic experiments revealed kobs to be first order in c(cat) and c(H2) and zeroth order in c(olefin). Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations suggest the catalysis to proceed along an Osborn-type catalytic cycle with olefin before H2 addition. The unsaturated key intermediates [ReBrH(NO)(P∩P)] (2ae) could be intercepted with MeCN as [ReBrH(MeCN)(NO)(P∩P)] (10ad) complexes or isolated as dimeric μ2-(H)2 complexes [{ReBr(μ2-H)(NO)(P∩P)}2] (9b and 9e). Variation of the bidentate ligand demonstrated a crucial influence of the (large)-bite-angle on the catalytic performance and reactivity of 3a,b,d, 5c, and 8e.