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Rethinking Basic ConceptsHydrogenation of Alkenes Catalyzed by Bench-Stable Alkyl Mn(I) Complexes

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journal contribution
posted on 28.09.2019, 12:30 by Stefan Weber, Berthold Stöger, Luis F. Veiros, Karl Kirchner
An efficient additive-free manganese-catalyzed hydrogenation of alkenes to alkanes with molecular hydrogen is described. This reaction is atom economic, implementing an inexpensive, earth-abundant nonprecious metal catalyst. The most efficient precatalyst is the bench-stable alkyl bisphosphine Mn­(I) complex fac-[Mn­(dippe)­(CO)3(CH2CH2CH3)]. The catalytic process is initiated by migratory insertion of a CO ligand into the Mn-alkyl bond to yield an acyl intermediate which undergoes rapid hydrogenolysis to form the active 16e Mn­(I) hydride catalyst [Mn­(dippe)­(CO)2(H)]. A range of mono- and disubstituted alkenes were efficiently converted into alkanes in good to excellent yields. The hydrogenation of 1-alkenes and 1,1-disubstituted alkenes proceeds at 25 °C, while 1,2-disubstituted alkenes require a reaction temperature of 60 °C. In all cases, a catalyst loading of 2 mol % and a hydrogen pressure of 50 bar were applied. A mechanism based on DFT calculations is presented, which is supported by preliminary experimental studies.