Results from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study: Concentrations and Fluxes of Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls and trans-Nonachlor
journal contributionposted on 09.12.2000, 00:00 by Sondra M. Miller, Mark L. Green, Joseph V. DePinto, Keri C. Hornbuckle
In this paper, we summarize the data and methods used to estimate atmospheric exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trans-nonachlor with Lake Michigan. This work was conducted as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance (LMMB) study. For the atmospheric component of the LMMB, more than 400 gas- and particulate-phase samples were collected at eight sites on the shore around the lake (shoreline) and at 14 sites on the lake (over-water). We review the quality of the data set; describe the concentrations in atmospheric gas and particulate phases; report local, instantaneous, net gas fluxes; and estimate annual deposition of the particle-associated compounds. The quality of the data set is high except for a subset of over-water samples where PCB contamination is suspected. Gas-phase trans-nonachlor concentrations (although not the resulting gas fluxes) are inversely correlated with latitude and positively correlated with temperature. Gas-phase ΣPCBs (sum of 98 congener groups) are highest in concentration at the Chicago site and lowest at the Sleeping Bear Dunes site. The resulting ΣPCB gas fluxes exhibit a seasonality that reflects elevated summertime gas-phase concentrations not compensated by temperature-corrected Henry's law coefficients. Particulate-phase deposition is much smaller in magnitude than gas fluxes, for either compound. Gas and particulate fluxes are comparable only at the Chicago site and only when large (>10 μm) particulates are considered.