American Chemical Society
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Replicative Bypass of O2‑Alkylthymidine Lesions in Vitro

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journal contribution
posted on 2016-09-09, 00:00 authored by Nicole L. Williams, Pengcheng Wang, Yinsheng Wang
DNA alkylation represents a major type of DNA damage and is generally unavoidable due to ubiquitous exposure to various exogenous and endogenous sources of alkylating agents. Among the alkylated DNA lesions, O2-alkylthymidines (O2-alkyldT) are known to be persistent and poorly repaired in mammalian systems and have been shown to accumulate in the esophagus, lung, and liver tissue of rats treated with tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, i.e., 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). In this study, we assessed the replicative bypass of a comprehensive set of O2-alkyldT lesions, with the alkyl group being a Me, Et, nPr, iPr, nBu, iBu, or sBu, in template DNA by conducting primer extension assays with the use of major translesion synthesis DNA polymerases. The results showed that human Pol η and, to a lesser degree, human Pol κ, but not human polymerase ι or yeast polymerase ζ, were capable of bypassing all O2-alkyldT lesions and extending the primer to generate full-length replication products. Data from steady-state kinetic measurements showed that human Pol η exhibited high frequencies of misincorporation of dCMP opposite those O2-alkyldT lesions bearing a longer straight-chain alkyl group. However, the nucleotide misincorporation opposite branched-chain lesions was not selective, with dCMP, dGMP, and dTMP being inserted at similar efficiencies, though the total frequencies of nucleotide misincorporation opposite the branched-chain lesions differed and followed the order of O2-iPrdT > O2-iBudT > O2-sBudT. Together, the results from the present study provided important knowledge about the effects of the length and structure of the alkyl group in the O2-alkyldT lesions on the fidelity and efficiency of DNA replication mediated by human Pol η.