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Regional Trend and Tissue Distribution of Brominated Flame Retardants and Persistent Organochlorines in Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Japan

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posted on 01.02.2008, 00:00 by Tatsuya Kunisue, Nozomi Takayanagi, Tomohiko Isobe, Shin Takahashi, Susumu Nakatsu, Toshio Tsubota, Keisuke Okumoto, Sumio Bushisue, Kazuyuki Shindo, Shinsuke Tanabe
The present study investigated concentrations and patterns of brominated flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and persistent organochlorines (OCs) in liver and adipose tissues of raccoon dogs (RD: Nyctereutes procyonoides) collected from two metropolises and a local prefecture in Japan during 2001–2006. Relatively high concentrations of PBDEs were found in RD livers, while HBCD levels were the lowest among the measured organohalogen compounds. Among PBDE congeners, BDE 209 was predominant in RDs from all the regions, indicating that pollution derived from the technical decaBDE product is extensive across Japan. On the other hand, concentrations of tetra- to nona-BDE congeners in RDs from a metropolis were significantly higher than those from the other two regions, implying that there were regional differences in the past usage of the technical tetraBDE and octaBDE products. Such a regional difference was also observed for HBCD levels. Lipid-normalized concentration ratios of liver to adipose tissue (L/A ratio) for tri to hepta-BDE congeners were lower than 1.0 in the investigated eight RDs, suggesting lipid-dependent accumulation. However, the L/A ratios of BDE 209 exceeded 1.0 in all the specimens, suggesting hepatic retention of this compound. In addition, lipid-dependent accumulation of α-HBCD was observed, but the L/A ratios of γ-HBCD were greater than 1.0 in some specimens. These results indicate that Japanese RDs have been recently exposed to BDE 209 and γ-HBCD and accumulated both these compounds preferentially in blood-rich organs, probably due to their binding to proteins and/or rapid biotransformation, as reported in experimental rodents.