American Chemical Society
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Realization of Highly Efficient Red Phosphorescence from Bis-Tridentate Iridium(III) Phosphors

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journal contribution
posted on 2019-07-31, 19:37 authored by Premkumar Gnanasekaran, Yi Yuan, Chun-Sing Lee, Xiuwen Zhou, Alex K.-Y. Jen, Yun Chi
Bis-tridentate Ir­(III) metal complexes bring forth interesting photophysical properties, among which the orthogonal arranged, planar tridentate chelates could increase the emission efficiency due to the greater rigidity and, in the meantime, allow strong interligand stacking that could deteriorate the emission efficiency. We bypassed this hurdle by design of five bis-tridentate Ir­(III) complexes (15), to which both of their monoanionic ancillary and dianionic chromophoric chelate were functionalized derivative of 2-pyrazolyl-6-phenylpyridine, i.e. pzpyphH2 parent chelate. Hence, addition of phenyl substituent to the pyrazolyl fragment of pzpyphH2 gave rise to the precursors of monoanionic chelate (A1H–A3H), on which the additional tert-butyl and/or methoxy groups were introduced at the selected positions for tuning their steric and electronic properties, while precursors of dianionic chelates was judiciously prepared with an isoquniolinyl central unit on pziqphH2 in giving the red-shifted emission (cf. L1H2 and L2H2). Factors affected their photophysical properties were discussed by theoretical methods based on DFT and TD-DFT calculation, confirming that the T1 excited state of all investigated Ir­(III) complexes shows a mixed metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT), intraligand charge transfer (ILCT), ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT), and ligand-centered (LC) transition character. In contrast, the poor quantum yield of 3 is due to the facilitation of the nonradiative decay in comparison to the radiative process. As for potential OLED applications, Ir­(III) complex 2 gives superior performance with max. efficiencies of 28.17%, 41.25 cd·A–1 and 37.03 lm·W–1, CIEx,y = 0.63, 0.37 at 50 mA cm–2, and small efficiency roll-off.