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Real-Time Fluorescent Image Analysis of DNA Spot Hybridization Kinetics To Assess Microarray Spot Heterogeneity

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journal contribution
posted on 06.11.2012, 00:00 by Archana N. Rao, Christopher K. Rodesch, David W. Grainger
Current microarray assay technology predominately uses fluorescence as a detectable signal end point. This study assessed real-time in situ surface hybridization capture kinetics for single printed DNA microspots on solid array surfaces using fluorescence. The influence of the DNA target and probe cyanine dye position on oligo-DNA duplex formation behavior was compared in solution versus surface-hybridized single DNA printed spots using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. Fluorophore Cy3/Cy5 fluorescence intensities were analyzed both through the printed hybridized DNA spot thickness and radially across single-spot surfaces. Confocal single-spot imaging shows that real-time in situ hybridization kinetics with constant target concentrations changes as a function of the printed probe density. Target-specific imaging in single spots exhibits a heterogeneous printed probe radial density that influences hybridization spatially and temporally via radial hemispherical diffusion of dye-labeled target from the outside edge of the spot to the interior. FRET of the surface-captured target occurs irrespective of the probe/target fluorophore position, resulting from excess printed probe density and spot thickness. Both heterogeneous probe density distributions in printed spots and the fluorophore position on short DNA oligomers influence duplex formation kinetics, hybridization efficiencies, and overall fluorescence intensity end points in surface-capture formats. This analysis is important to understanding, controlling, and quantifying the array assay signal essential to reliable application of the surface-capture format.