American Chemical Society
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Real-Time Immunosensor for Small-Molecule Monitoring in Industrial Food Processes

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-13, 14:43 authored by Chris Vu, Yu-Ting Lin, Stijn R. R. Haenen, Julia Marschall, Annemarie Hummel, Simone F. A. Wouters, Jos M. H. Raats, Arthur M. de Jong, Junhong Yan, Menno W. J. Prins
Industrial food processes are monitored to ensure that food is being produced with good quality, yield, and productivity. For developing innovative real-time monitoring and control strategies, real-time sensors are needed that can continuously report chemical and biochemical data of the manufacturing process. Here, we describe a generalizable methodology to develop affinity-based biosensors for the continuous monitoring of small molecules in industrial food processes. Phage-display antibody fragments were developed for the measurement of small molecules, as exemplified with the measurement of glycoalkaloids (GAs) in potato fruit juice. The recombinant antibodies were selected for use in a competition-based biosensor with single-molecule resolution, called biosensing by particle motion, using assay architectures with free particles as well as tethered particles. The resulting sensor measures GAs in the micromolar range, is reversible, has a measurement response time below 5 min, and enables continuous monitoring of GAs in protein-rich solutions for more than 20 h with concentration measurement errors below 15%. The demonstrated biosensor gives the perspective to enable a variety of monitoring and control strategies based on continuous measurement of small molecules in industrial food processes.