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Quantum Chemical Investigation of Light-Activated Spin State Change in Pyrene Coupled to Oxoverdazyl Radical Center

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journal contribution
posted on 2015-09-03, 00:00 authored by Tumpa Sadhukhan, Anindya Datta, Sambhu N. Datta
Low-spin ground states and low-lying excited states of higher spin were investigated for four pyrene oxoverdazyl monoradicals 14 and eight pyrene dioxoverdazyl diradicals 512. The ground states for quartet and quintet spin symmetries that are in reality excited states were found in the region of 565–775 nm above the respective electronic ground states. We calculated the “adiabatic” magnetic exchange coupling constant in the electronic ground state of each isolated biradical (512) by unrestricted density functional theory. A number of hybrid functionals such as B3LYP, PBE0, M06, and M06-2X were used. We also used range-separated functionals such as LC-ωPBE and ωB97XD to compare their effects on the coupling constant and the relative energy of the high-spin state. Molecular geometries were optimized for the doublet and quartet spin states of every monoradical (14), and the broken symmetry and triplet solutions were optimized for every biradical (512), by systematically using 6-311G, 6-311G­(d,p), and 6-311++G­(d,p) basis sets with each functional. The geometry of each quintet diradical (512) was optimized using 6-311G basis set. B3LYP produced the best spin values. The excited state (quartet or quintet)–ground state energy difference (ΔE) increases in the presence of para-phenylene connectors. These energy differences were predicted here. The nature of spin coupling and consequently the ground state spin agree with spin alternation rule and the calculated atomic spin population. The adiabatic coupling constants were predicted for the biradicals (512) in their electronic ground states. Electron paramagnetic resonance parameters were determined at 6-311++G** level for the ground state and the quartet state of 1 and compared with the available experimental data. Low-lying excited states were found for the radical center (oxoverdazyl), pyrene, molecule 1, and diradical 5 by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method using B3LYP hybrid, 6-311++G­(d,p) basis set, and the molecular geometry in the electronic ground state. Data from these calculations were used to discuss possible mechanisms for the achievement of the high-spin (excited) states in 1 and 5 and to predict a similar outcome for radicals 24 and 612 upon excitation. A comprehensive mechanism for the first excitation is proposed here. In particular, we show that the initial excitation of 1 involves large contributions from mixed transitions between pyrene and oxoverdazyl moieties, whereas the initial excitation of 5 is basically that of only the pyrene fragment. Subsequent internal conversion and intersystem crossing are likely to lead to the high-spin states of lower energy. Sample spin-flip TDDFT calculations were also done to confirm the energetic location and composition of the quartet state of 1 and the quintet state of 5.

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