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Quantum Capacitance Based Amplified Graphene Phononics for Studying Neurodegenerative Diseases

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journal contribution
posted on 2018-11-23, 00:00 authored by Bijentimala Keisham, Akop Seksenyan, Steven Denyer, Pouyan Kheirkhah, Gregory D. Arnone, Pablo Avalos, Abhiraj D. Bhimani, Clive Svendsen, Vikas Berry, Ankit I. Mehta
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease (MND) characterized by a rapid loss of upper and lower motor neurons resulting in patient death from respiratory failure within 3–5 years of initial symptom onset. Although at least 30 genes of major effect have been reported, the pathobiology of ALS is not well understood. Compounding this is the lack of a reliable laboratory test which can accurately diagnose this rapidly deteriorating disease. Herein, we report on the phonon vibration energies of graphene as a sensitive measure of the composite dipole moment of the interfaced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that includes a signature-composition specific to the patients with ALS disease. The second-order overtone of in-plane phonon vibration energy (2D peak) of graphene shifts by 3.2 ± 0.5 cm–1 for all ALS patients studied in this work. Further, the amount of n-doping-induced shift in the phonon energy of graphene, interfaced with CSF, is specific to the investigated neurodegenerative disease (ALS, multiple sclerosis, and MND). By removing a severe roadblock in disease detection, this technology can be applied to study diagnostic biomarkers for researchers developing therapeutics and clinicians initiating treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.