American Chemical Society
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Quantitative Efficacy Classification of Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Agents

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journal contribution
posted on 2014-09-03, 00:00 authored by Carsten Budke, Axel Dreyer, Jasmin Jaeger, Kerstin Gimpel, Thomas Berkemeier, Anna S. Bonin, Lilly Nagel, Carolin Plattner, Arthur L. DeVries, Norbert Sewald, Thomas Koop
Experimental investigations of ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) efficacy have been performed for a large number of different substances, including natural antifreeze proteins (AFP) and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP), several synthetic AFGP analogues, as well as synthetic polymers. Here we define IRI efficacy as that concentration at which the ice recrystallization rate is dominated by the IRI compound. The investigated 39 compounds show IRI efficacies from about 2 mmol L–1 for the least effective compound still showing activity to about 1 nmol L–1, which corresponds to the highest efficacy found for natural AFGP samples. Hence, the assay employed allows for a quantitative comparison of IRI efficacy over a range of at least 6 orders of magnitude, thereby enabling studies of distinguishing effects induced by even subtle structural variations in AFGP analogues that were synthesized. Our results show that AFGP are by far the most effective IRI agents in our assay, and we surmise that this particular efficacy may be due to their disaccharide moieties. This supposition is supported by the fact that IRI efficacy is strongly reduced for monosaccharide AFGP analogues, as well as for AFGP analogues with acetyl-protected monosaccharide moieties.