American Chemical Society
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Quantification of Toxins in Soapberry (Sapindaceae) Arils: Hypoglycin A and Methylenecyclopropylglycine

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journal contribution
posted on 2016-07-01, 15:08 authored by Samantha L. Isenberg, Melissa D. Carter, Shelby R. Hayes, Leigh Ann Graham, Darryl Johnson, Thomas P. Mathews, Leslie A. Harden, Gary R. Takeoka, Jerry D. Thomas, James L. Pirkle, Rudolph C. Johnson
Methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG) and hypoglycin A (HGA) are naturally occurring amino acids found in some soapberry fruits. Fatalities have been reported worldwide as a result of HGA ingestion, and exposure to MCPG has been implicated recently in the Asian outbreaks of hypoglycemic encephalopathy. In response to an outbreak linked to soapberry ingestion, the authors developed the first method to simultaneously quantify MCPG and HGA in soapberry fruits from 1 to 10 000 ppm of both toxins in dried fruit aril. Further, this is the first report of HGA in litchi, longan, and mamoncillo arils. This method is presented to specifically address the laboratory needs of public-health investigators in the hypoglycemic encephalitis outbreaks linked to soapberry fruit ingestion.