American Chemical Society
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QZ1 and QZ2:  Rapid, Reversible Quinoline-Derivatized Fluoresceins for Sensing Biological Zn(II)

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journal contribution
posted on 2005-12-07, 00:00 authored by Elizabeth M. Nolan, Jacek Jaworski, Ken-Ichi Okamoto, Yasunori Hayashi, Morgan Sheng, Stephen J. Lippard
QZ1, 2-[2-chloro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-5-(quinolin-8-ylaminomethyl)-3H-xanthen-9-yl]benzoic acid, and QZ2, 2-[6-hydroxy-3-oxo-4,5-bis-(quinolin-8-ylaminomethyl)-3H-xanthen-9-yl]benzoic acid, two fluorescein-based dyes derivatized with 8-aminoquinoline, have been prepared and their photophysical, thermodynamic, and zinc-binding kinetic properties determined. Because of their low background fluorescence and highly emissive Zn(II) complexes, QZ1 and QZ2 have a large dynamic range, with ∼42- and ∼150-fold fluorescence enhancements upon Zn(II) coordination, respectively. These dyes have micromolar Kd values for Zn(II) and are selective for Zn(II) over biologically relevant concentrations of the alkali and alkaline earth metals. The Zn(II) complexes also fluoresce brightly in the presence of excess Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II), offering improved specificity for Zn(II) over di(2-picolyl)amine-based Zn(II) sensors. Stopped-flow kinetic investigations indicate that QZ1 and QZ2 bind Zn(II) with kon values of (3−4) × 106 M-1 s-1, compared to (6−8) × 105 M-1 s-1 for select ZP (Zinpyr) dyes, at 4.3 °C. Dissociation of Zn(II) from QZ1 and QZ2 occurs with koff values of 150 and 160 s-1, over 5 orders of magnitude larger than those for ZP probes, achieving reversibility on the biological (millisecond) time scale. Laser scanning confocal and two-photon microscopy studies reveal that QZ2 is cell-permeable and Zn(II)-responsive in vivo. Because of its weaker affinity for Zn(II), QZ2 responds to higher concentrations of intracellular Zn(II) than members of the ZP family, illustrating that binding affinity is an important parameter for Zn(II) detection in vivo.