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Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids Doped with Lithium Salts: How Does Li+ Coordination Affect Its Diffusivity?

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journal contribution
posted on 26.11.2014, 00:00 by Franca Castiglione, Antonino Famulari, Guido Raos, Stefano V. Meille, Andrea Mele, Giovanni Battista Appetecchi, Stefano Passerini
We present the characterization of LiX-doped room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) based on the N-butyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium (PYR14) cation with two fluorinated anions: (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl)­imide (XIM14) and bis­(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)­imide (XBETI). The new data are also compared with previous results on PYR14TFSI (bis­(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)­imide). Their local organization has been investigated via NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments for {1H–19F} and {1H–7Li} that give us details on PYR14+/X and PYR14+/Li+ contacts. We confirm the presence of [Li­(X)2] coordinated species in all systems. The long-range, intermolecular NOEs have been detected and provide information on the ions’ organization beyond the first solvation sphere. The ionic conductivity, viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients of the ionic mixtures have also been measured. The activation energies for the diffusion of the individual ions and for the fluidity are compared with those for the pure ILs. Finally, density functional calculations on [Li­(BETI)2], [Li­(IM14)2], and [Li­(TFSI)2] complexes demonstrate that the minimum energy structures for all systems correspond to a tetrahedral coordination of the Li-ion by four oxygen atoms of the anions. Assuming very simple key steps for the Li+ diffusion process (i.e., the concerted breaking and formation of Li–O bonds or the rearrangement around a tetrahedrally coordinated Li+), we calculate activation barriers that agree well with the experimental results (approximately 46 kJ/mol, in all systems).