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Protospacer Adjacent Motif-Induced Allostery Activates CRISPR-Cas9

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journal contribution
posted on 02.08.2017, 00:00 by Giulia Palermo, Clarisse G. Ricci, Amendra Fernando, Rajshekhar Basak, Martin Jinek, Ivan Rivalta, Victor S. Batista, J. Andrew McCammon
CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome editing technology with major impact in life sciences. In this system, the endonuclease Cas9 generates double strand breaks in DNA upon RNA-guided recognition of a complementary DNA sequence, which strictly requires the presence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) next to the target site. Although PAM recognition is essential for cleavage, it is unknown whether and how PAM binding activates Cas9 for DNA cleavage at spatially distant sites. Here, we find evidence of a PAM-induced allosteric mechanism revealed by microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. PAM acts as an allosteric effector and triggers the interdependent conformational dynamics of the Cas9 catalytic domains (HNH and RuvC), responsible for concerted cleavage of the two DNA strands. Targeting such an allosteric mechanism should enable control of CRISPR-Cas9 functionality.