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Probing the Reaction Mechanism of Spore Photoproduct Lyase (SPL) via Diastereoselectively Labeled Dinucleotide SP TpT Substrates

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journal contribution
posted on 13.07.2011, 00:00 by Linlin Yang, Gengjie Lin, Degang Liu, Karl J. Dria, Joshua Telser, Lei Li
5-Thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine (commonly called spore photoproduct or SP) is the exclusive DNA photodamage product in bacterial endospores. It is generated in the bacterial sporulation phase and repaired by a radical SAM enzyme, spore photoproduct lyase (SPL), at the early germination phase. SPL utilizes a special [4Fe-4S] cluster to reductively cleave S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to generate a reactive 5′-dA radical. The 5′-dA radical is proposed to abstract one of the two H-atoms at the C6 carbon of SP to initiate the repair process. Via organic synthesis and DNA photochemistry, we selectively labeled the 6-HproS or 6-HproR position with a deuterium in a dinucleotide SP TpT substrate. Monitoring the deuterium migration in enzyme catalysis (employing Bacillus subtilis SPL) revealed that it is the 6-HproR atom of SP that is abstracted by the 5′-dA radical. Surprisingly, the abstracted deuterium was not returned to the resulting TpT after enzymatic catalysis; an H-atom from the aqueous buffer was incorporated into TpT instead. This result questions the currently hypothesized SPL mechanism which excludes the involvement of protein residue(s) in SPL reaction, suggesting that some protein residue(s), which is capable of exchanging a proton with the aqueous buffer, is involved in the enzyme catalysis. Moreover, evidence has been obtained for a possible SAM regeneration after each catalytic cycle; however, such a regeneration process is more complex than currently thought, with one or even more protein residues involved as well. These observations have enabled us to propose a modified reaction mechanism for this intriguing DNA repair enzyme.