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Printable Nonenzymatic Glucose Biosensors Using Carbon Nanotube-PtNP Nanocomposites Modified with AuRu for Improved Selectivity

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-08-12, 21:46 authored by Tran N. H. Nguyen, Xin Jin, James K. Nolan, Jian Xu, Khanh Vy H. Le, Stephanie Lam, Yi Wang, Muhammad A. Alam, Hyowon Lee
Nonenzymatic glucose biosensors have the potential for a more reliable in vivo functionality due to the reduced risk of biorecognition element degradation. However, these novel sensing mechanisms often are nanoparticle-based and have nonlinear responses, which makes it difficult to gauge their potential utility against more conventional enzymatic biosensors. Moreover, these nonenzymatic biosensors often suffer from poor selectivity that needs to be better addressed before being used in vivo. To address these problems, here we present an amperometric nonenzymatic glucose biosensor fabricated using one-step electrodeposition of Au and Ru nanoparticles on the surface of a carbon-nanotube-based platinum–nanoparticle hybrid in conductive polymer. Using benchtop evaluations, we demonstrate that the bimetallic catalyst of Au-Ru nanoparticles can enable the nonenzymatic detection of glucose with a superior performance and stability. Furthermore, our biosensor shows good selectivity against other interferents, with a nonlinear dynamic range of 1–19 mM glucose. The Au-Ru catalyst has a conventional linear range of 1–10 mM, with a sensitivity of 0.2347 nA/(μM mm2) ± 0.0198 (n = 3) and a limit of detection of 0.068 mM (signal-to-noise, S/N = 3). The biosensor also exhibits a good repeatability and stability at 37 °C over a 3 week incubation period. Finally, we use a modified Butler–Volmer nonlinear analytical model to evaluate the impact of geometrical and chemical design parameters on our nonenzymatic biosensor’s performance, which may be used to help optimize the performance of this class of biosensors.