Prenatal Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants, Mediating Molecular Mechanisms, and Shifts in Birthweight
journal contributionposted on 30.10.2020, 16:05 by Jessica E. Laine, Barbara Bodinier, Oliver Robinson, Michelle Plusquin, Augustin Scalbert, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Nivonirina Robinot, Roel Vermeulen, Costanza Pizzi, Federica Asta, Tim Nawrot, John Gulliver, Leda Chatzi, Manolis Kogevinas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Paolo Vineis
Mechanisms underlying adverse birth and later in life health effects from exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period have not been not fully elucidated, especially in the context of mixtures. We assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to mixtures of air pollutants of particulate matter (PM), PM2.5, PM10, nitrogen oxides, NO2, NOx, ultrafine particles (UFP), and oxidative potential (OP) of PM2.5 on infant birthweight in four European birth cohorts and the mechanistic underpinnings through cross-omics of metabolites and inflammatory proteins. The association between mixtures of air pollutants and birthweight z-scores (standardized for gestational age) was assessed for three different mixture models, using Bayesian machine kernel regression (BKMR). We determined the direct effect for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and mediation by cross-omic signatures (identified using sparse partial least-squares regression) using causal mediation BKMR models. There was a negative association with birthweight z-scores and exposure to mixtures of air pollutants, where up to −0.21 or approximately a 96 g decrease in birthweight, comparing the 75th percentile to the median level of exposure to the air pollutant mixture could occur. Shifts in birthweight z-scores from prenatal exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were mediated by molecular mechanisms, represented by cross-omics scores. Interleukin-17 and epidermal growth factor were identified as important inflammatory responses underlyingair pollution-associated shifts in birthweight. Our results signify that by identifying mechanisms through which mixtures of air pollutants operate, the causality of air pollution-associated shifts in birthweight is better supported, substantiating the need for reducing exposure in vulnerable populations.
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Multiple Air Pollutantscross-omicepidermal growth factorair pollutant mixturelife health effectsEuropean birth cohortsOPBayesian machine kernel regressionmediation BKMR modelsPM 10responses underlyingair pollution-a...PM 2.5air pollution-associated shiftsUFPbirthweight z-scores96 g decreaseair pollutantsMediating Molecular Mechanismsexposure