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Precisely Assembled Nanoparticles against Cisplatin Resistance via Cancer-Specific Targeting of Mitochondria and Imaging-Guided Chemo-Photothermal Therapy

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journal contribution
posted on 21.09.2020, 10:39 by Gang-Gang Yang, Zheng-Yin Pan, Dong-Yang Zhang, Qian Cao, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Cisplatin resistance in tumor cells is known mainly due to the reduced accumulation of platinum ions by efflux, detoxification by intracellular GSH, and nucleotide excision repair machinery-mediated nuclear DNA repair. In this work, theranostic Pt­(IV)-NPs, which are precisely self-assembled by biotin-labeled Pt­(IV) prodrug derivative and cyclodextrin-functionalized IR780 in a 1:1 molecular ratio, have been developed for addressing all these hurdles via mitochondria-targeted chemotherapy solely or chemophotothermal therapy. In these nanoparticles, IR780 as a small-molecule dye acts as a mitochondria-targeting ligand to make Pt­(IV)-NPs relocate finally in the mitochondria and release cisplatin. As demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo experiments, Pt­(IV)-NPs can markedly facilitate cancer-specific mitochondrial targeting, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, thus greatly increasing the Pt accumulation, reducing the GSH levels, and avoiding DNA repair machinery in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells (A549R), finally resulting in significant inhibition of A549R tumor growth on animal models by chemotherapy solely. Upon near-infrared irradiation, mitochondria-targeted chemophotothermal synergistic therapy can be realized, further overcoming cisplatin resistance and even eliminating A549R tumors completely. Moreover, such novel Pt­(IV)-NPs integrate multimodal targeting (cancer and mitochondria targeting), imaging (near-infrared imaging and photoacoustic imaging), and therapeutic (chemo- and photothermal therapy) moieties in a constant ratio (1:1:1) into a single, reproducible, and structurally homogeneous entity, avoiding nonuniform drug loading and premature leakage as well as the discrete steps of imaging and therapy, which thus is more beneficial for precise therapeutics and future clinical translation.