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Potential Value of Plasma Amyloid-β, Total Tau, and Neurofilament Light for Identification of Early Alzheimer’s Disease

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posted on 2019-05-30, 00:00 authored by Yachen Shi, Xiang Lu, Linhai Zhang, Hao Shu, Lihua Gu, Zan Wang, Lijuan Gao, Jianli Zhu, Haisan Zhang, Deyu Zhou, Zhijun Zhang
The objective of the study was to explore the potential value of plasma indicators for identifying amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and determine whether levels of plasma indicators are related to the performance of cognitive function and brain tissue volumes. In total, 155 participants (68 aMCI patients and 87 health controls) were recruited in the present cross-sectional study. The levels of plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) 40, Aβ42, total tau (t-tau), and neurofilament light (NFL) were measured using an ultrasensitive quantitative method. Machine learning algorithms were performed for establishing an optimal model of identifying aMCI. Compared with healthy controls, Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels were lower and NFL levels were higher in plasma of aMCI patients with an exception of t-tau levels. In aMCI patients, the higher plasma Aβ40 levels were correlated with the impaired episodic memory and negative correlations were observed between plasma t-tau levels and global cognitive function and gray matter (GM) volume. In addition, the higher plasma NFL levels were correlated with reduced hippocampus volume and total GM volume of the left inferior and middle temporal gyrus. An integrated model included clinical features, hippocampus volume, and plasma Aβ42 and NFL and had the highest accuracy for detecting aMCI patients (accuracy, 74.2%). We demonstrated that plasma Aβ40, Aβ42, t-tau, and NFL may be useful to identify aMCI and correlate with cognitive decline and brain atrophy. Among these plasma indicators, Aβ42 and NFL are more valuable as key members of a peripheral biomarker panel to detect aMCI.

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